One of many subsequent key steps will come when Could’s authorities introduces the Nice Repeal Invoice.

The invoice is designed to place an finish to the EU’s authorized jurisdiction over the UK. However first it should transpose all present EU legal guidelines into the UK statute books “to make sure the utmost stability on exit,” the government says.

Parliament will then start the daunting process of deciding which EU legal guidelines to maintain and which to scrap, primarily untangling 4 many years of EU guidelines now enshrined in UK laws.

There are nearly 20,000 EU legislative acts in force that make up a mind-boggling algorithm dictating every little thing from how a lot clear power a rustic ought to use to the suitable curvature of a grocery retailer banana.

So the place will the federal government start? This is a listing of simply 50 issues the UK might want to work out because it units sail by itself.

MORE: What Article 50 actually says

The large questions

1. A brand new immigration system

Immigration was a key difficulty within the Brexit debate. After the UK withdraws from the union, a system to permit its nationals to go to, work, examine and reside within the EU — and vice versa — should be hammered out.

The UK is at the moment a part of the European Single Market, which permits items, providers and other people to maneuver freely by way of member states. EU residents have the appropriate to journey and search work in different EU nations. Roughly 1.2 million Brits had been settled within the EU in 2015, and round three.2 million EU nationals had been residing within the UK, according to government statistics.

However as Could has made clear, the UK will no longer be part of the single market, so this free motion will come to an finish after Brexit.

The concept of a points-based system like Australia’s has been floated, with the goal of attracting immigrants with sure abilities to fill gaps within the economic system.

2. Asylum seekers and refugees

The UK has opted out of most EU laws on immigration, however an exception is the Dublin III regulation, beneath which EU member states can transfer asylum seekers back to the first safe EU country they entered.

Since asylum seekers typically attain the UK after touring by way of nations like Italy and Greece, the UK transfers more asylum seekers back to those and other European countries under this rule than it receives.

However that regulation will now not apply after Brexit, so these nations will not be obliged to obtain asylum seekers whom the UK desires to ship again. If the UK desires to protect the precept of Dublin III, the federal government should negotiate separate bilateral preparations with every particular person nation.

three. A commerce cope with the EU

One of the vital contentious factors of the Brexit debate was the UK’s commerce relations with the EU. A brand new commerce deal is anticipated to be some of the troublesome and essential components of the negotiations.

The UK intends to go away the EU’s single market and can also depart the EU customs union, by way of which Britain enjoys tariff-free commerce. If no commerce deal is agreed upon, the UK would have to trade with the EU under World Trade Organization rules, which might result in new tariffs and laws.

MORE: How many Brexit promises will be broken?

four. Commerce offers with everybody else

Submit-Brexit doorways are opening for the UK to strike new commerce offers with non-EU nations just like the US, China, Brazil, Australia and Canada. As a member of the EU — which negotiates commerce offers as a bloc — this might not have been attainable.

5. Safety vs. privateness

The UK authorities has proved nosier than most of its EU counterparts — final yr, Parliament handed the Investigatory Powers Act, higher often known as the “Snooper’s Constitution,” which provides UK regulation enforcement businesses unprecedented entry to non-public knowledge and requires telecommunications corporations to retailer web-browsing histories for a yr.

However the EU has strict knowledge safety legal guidelines — together with one directive, for instance, that claims EU nations should assure that info is saved or accessed provided that the consumer has been knowledgeable and been given the appropriate of refusal.

The EU in December ruled that parts of the “Snooper’s Charter” were unlawful. When the UK leaves the EU nonetheless, the judgment can be rendered invalid.

6. Legislation enforcement

In addition to being a member of Europol, the UK is part of an EU system where police forces from different countries can automatically share DNA, fingerprints and car registration knowledge for regulation enforcement functions. According to European think tank CEPS, “Brexit implies that the UK will lose entry to all these info instruments for regulation enforcement functions.”

The peculiar and pedantic

7. Understanding what jam is

In 2010, an EU directive was handed stating that jams must consist of 60% sugar and are available from a listing of accredited fruits in an effort to be categorized as jam. The directive alarmed many small enterprise homeowners already advertising and marketing their product as jam, who thought they must both change their labels or sugar content material because of the regulation.

In 2013, Michelle “Clippy” McKenna, a British apple protect maker, argued that her product was a jam though it did not cross the sugar threshold — but it surely turned out that there was a clause within the EU rule permitting for exemptions. It was simply that the UK had not included this clause into its own law. The federal government has saved a lid on its plans to amend any meals directives for now, though Brexit would permit the UK to can the jam rule altogether ought to it want to.

eight. Pig semen

Wish to import pig semen into the EU? Farmers searching for to enhance the standard of their pork should acquire pig semen from a certified assortment middle and ensure it comes with an animal well being certificates, according to another EU directive. It is not clear how the way forward for the swine gene pool can be affected by Brexit but — but it surely’s absolutely on the minds of the farmers overseeing the 10,000 pig farms in the UK.

9. Vivid lights

May conventional incandescent mild bulbs make a return to excessive avenue cabinets within the UK? The UK largely phased out incandescent bulbs following an EU directive favoring more energy efficient options in 2009. However the regulation only applied to domestic use, and to this present day the normal mild bulbs are commercially obtainable within the UK. It is attainable Britain might deliver again the intense lights after Brexit.

10. Flexible bananas

The EU guidelines on bananas have lengthy been the topic of mockery. In keeping with the 1994 regulation, bananas should be “free from malformation or irregular curvature,” be greater than 14 centimeters in size and are available in bunches of at the very least 4. Different components of the regulation say the fruit should be free from pests and largely freed from bruises. Bananas is perhaps bendier after Brexit — however might they be much less appetizing too?

11. Footwear labeling

Have a look at the label in your footwear. Should you purchased it within the EU, you may discover details about the supplies used to make them. EU law specifies that shoe labels should be embossed on the footwear or connected by an adhesive label, fastener or string. Looking for footwear after Brexit might be a way more complicated affair if the UK would not discover its footing with a brand new invoice.

12. Transfer your horses

If you wish to transfer a horse inside the EU, strict rules apply. The animal should present no signal of illness within the 48 hours previous to touring and will need to have had no contact with horses which have an infectious illness within the earlier 15 days. However nations exterior the EU face even more durable guidelines, together with extra inspections by consultants from EU nations and the European Fee. A post-Brexit UK might have to barter a separate association to keep away from these stricter laws.

13. The way forward for soccer

The principles round sporting transfers are prone to change when Britain leaves the EU — and impact one of the world’s most watched leagues.

Which means as soon as Britain’s demarcation from the EU is lastly drawn, footballers seeking to ply their commerce within the English Premier League — or in Scotland, Wales and Northern Eire — are prone to be topic to a more durable algorithm that govern transfers from exterior the area.

The English Soccer Affiliation in 2015 tightened the foundations for non-EU gamers becoming a member of English groups in an effort to present indigenous gamers extra probability.

So non-EU gamers needed to have made a minimal variety of worldwide appearances for a top-50 nation over the earlier two years (the upper the rating, the less the variety of matches mandatory).

Spanish celebrity footballers, for instance, might must get the identical work permits as Brazilians to play in post-Brexit England.

14. Security at work

EU laws on health and safety at work are sometimes mocked for being extreme. Employers should be certain that employees have details about the burden and weight distribution of a load earlier than dealing with it, they usually should arrange workstations to make dealing with as secure as attainable. The directive warns of elevated dangers if the ground is uneven, the load is unwieldy or the employee is sporting unsuitable clothes. With out this regulation, or an identical substitute, is UK office security in jeopardy?

15. The way forward for coloring in

The EU is at the moment attempting to introduce new measures limiting the quantity of lead allowed in toys and objects which may be chewed on by youngsters. Some British media characterised the proposal as little greater than bureaucrats in Brussels clamping down on coloring pencils and crayons.

In keeping with the European Chemical compounds Company, the typical lead content material within the blood of European youngsters is as much as four times higher than recommended. EU toy security laws are some of the toughest in the world. It’s unclear if the UK will stick to those guidelines after Brexit.

16. Noisy autos

An EU regulation goals to chop down on noise air pollution by guaranteeing new automobiles are a little bit quieter than earlier than. In three phases, it should ban new four-wheel passenger autos which might be louder than 77 decibels by 2026, and autos carrying items can be restricted to 79 decibels. It additionally requires electrical and hybrid automobiles to make synthetic engine noises to keep away from accidents, particularly involving pedestrians. The probabilities of Britain being flooded with annoyingly noisy autos after Brexit appears unlikely, however the nation might not stick with such stringent guidelines.

17. Commerce in torture devices

EU member nations are banned from importing objects that haven’t any sensible use apart from finishing up capital punishment, torture or inhuman or degrading treatment. Amongst them are electrical chairs and shock belts, shackles, gallows, guillotines and pepper spray. Revisiting this regulation might make for some fascinating deliberations in UK Parliament.

The nitty gritty

18. Brits overseas

In the mean time, UK nationals can flip as much as an EU nation, flash their passports and be granted freedom of motion inside the union. However as soon as the nation pulls out of the EU, this privilege might come to an finish.

The federal government might want to negotiate a deal for its residents and can doubtless attempt to retain visa-free journey. However the European Fee might produce other concepts — it at the moment has a proposal on that desk for a visa waiver system, very like the scheme in the US, to tighten screening of all non-EU members getting into the EU. This could contain making use of on-line for a visa forward of time and paying a small charge to be given entry to the zone.

19. Roaming costs

EU residents pay comparatively low roaming charges for telephone calls and knowledge utilization inside the EU. And the union is aiming to abolish roaming charges altogether by June this year.

As outsiders, telecommunications corporations is not going to be obliged to supply the identical low charges to British vacationers, and these charges might come all the way down to what sort of deal the federal government strikes with the EU.

20. Price of air journey

Air journey between EU nations has change into way more inexpensive because the EU removed several competition barriers, permitting finances airways to flourish. However after Brexit, UK airways corresponding to EasyJet won’t be able to take advantage of these benefits and might want to make new agreements to function in EU airspace, in keeping with the Chief Govt of the Civil Aviation Authority. The affect this might have on costs is unclear.

21. Air passenger rights

Should you’re an EU citizen and your flight is canceled or delayed, or in the event you’re denied boarding towards your will, you are entitled to various forms of compensation beneath EU regulation. Even in the event you’re merely seated in a category decrease than you paid for, you may declare as much as 75% of the value of the ticket. After Brexit, UK residents will now not have these rights.

22. The 48-hour work week

Employers are obliged to ensure their staff work not more than 48 hours per week on common beneath the EU’s Working Time Directive. Think-tank Open Europe claims that the rule prices the economic system £four.2 billion ($5.three billion) a yr. It is nonetheless unclear whether or not the UK authorities will scrap the regulation after Brexit, however the Trades Union Congress (TUC) fears that working time protections could be weakened.

23. Carers’ rights

A landmark 2008 European Court of Justice decision dominated that non-disabled staff are protected by regulation if discriminated towards on the premise of their affiliation or take care of a disabled individual. For instance, if an employer discriminated towards a father or mother caring for a disabled baby, the father or mother might declare for discrimination. After Brexit, the UK authorities can be free to determine on the way forward for carers’ rights within the office.

24. Equal pay for company employees

The EU has additionally obliged employers to pay short-term company employees on the identical charge as everlasting staff. The federal government might select to revisit this rule, which Open Europe says prices the economic system a further £2.1 billion ($2.6 billion) a year.

25. Half-time employees’ pension

Rulings by the European Courtroom of Justice obliged the UK to enroll part-time employees in employer pension schemes — not doing so was seen as discrimination against women, who work part-time roles in greater numbers. It’s unclear whether or not the federal government will rethink this rule.

26. Annual depart

Below EU regulation, in the event you get sick whereas on annual depart, you may retake that depart at a later date and even carry it over into the next yr. According to the Local Government Association, this conflicts with UK regulation, which does not permit staff to hold over depart from one yr to the following. This battle might imply that this specific EU regulation is scrapped after Brexit.

27. Gender equality

Below its Strategic Gender Equality plan, the EU allotted 6.17 billion euros ($6.7 billion) between 2014 and 2020 to achieve sure targets, corresponding to decreasing the gender pay hole, stopping and combating violence towards girls and getting extra girls concerned in science, expertise, engineering and arithmetic. The UK authorities might want to determine how you can fill this funding hole, post-Brexit.

In his 2017 spring finances speech, Chancellor of the Exchequer Philip Hammond pledged to commit £20 million ($25 million) of presidency funding to help a nationwide marketing campaign to cease violence towards girls and ladies. Hammond additionally reinstated the controversial “tampon tax,” a 5% tax positioned on the sanitary merchandise, which can be used to ship a further £12 million ($15 million) in help of ladies’s charities nationwide, in keeping with Hammond.

28. Maternity depart

Employers within the EU offer a minimum paid maternity leave of 14 weeks uninterrupted. Below UK regulation, new mothers in the UK get 52 weeks of maternity leave, 39 of which are partially paid. Brexit would not doubtless change the UK’s already beneficiant legal guidelines.

29. Erasmus

UK college college students at the moment have entry to Erasmus, an EU scholar alternate program that enables them to review in one other Erasmus nation for 3 to 12 months. Nearly half of all UK students who journey to review elsewhere for a brief interval accomplish that by way of this scheme. Entry to Erasmus will now not be computerized and should be renegotiated.

30. Recognition of

EU residents who get knowledgeable qualification in a single EU nation may fit in one other safe in the knowledge that their skill — whether or not or not it’s accounting, educating, beekeeping or wine-tasting — can be acknowledged.

It is pretty easy for UK residents to search out work or coaching elsewhere within the EU through the use of the European Qualifications Framework and the Europass to checklist their abilities and . These standardized paperwork assist universities and employers to match candidates from nations throughout the EU. As soon as Britain has left the EU, UK residents might not have the ability to entry these instruments and nations might determine to not acknowledge one another’s unconditionally.

31. Horizon 2020

Quite a lot of UK universities, together with Edinburgh, Manchester, Oxford and Cambridge, have acquired thousands and thousands of euros in funding by way of Horizon 2020, an EU program that promotes analysis into matters as numerous as well being and well-being, inexperienced transport, outer area and future applied sciences.

In keeping with the “white paper” on Brexit, the federal government “will work with the European Fee to make sure fee” when funds are awarded in analysis packages together with Horizon 2020 . It promised to ensure such grants, even when initiatives proceed after the UK leaves the EU. The position of UK universities in future EU-led analysis packages stays unclear, nonetheless.

32. CO2 Emissions

The UK is a part of the EU Emissions Trading System, the cornerstone of the EU’s local weather change coverage and the world’s first and largest carbon market. Below the ETS, a cap is ready on the whole quantity of sure greenhouse gases that may be emitted, and is decreased over time in order that whole emissions fall. The system is now in its third section — the place a single, EU-wide cap on emissions applies rather than the earlier system of nationwide caps. If the UK leaves the ETS, the EU-wide cap will need to be adjusted and laws launched to maintain the UK’s CO2 emissions in examine.

33. Protecting seashores clear

Till the 1970s, the UK might legally pump untreated sewage into the ocean. That each one modified with the 1975 EU Bathing Water Directive, which units the requirements for holding the UK’s seaside and its waters clear. Although the British government continued to dump raw sewage into the sea until at least 1991, the EU directive has been profitable. In 2015, 99.4% of the coast’s bathing waters met minimum EU standards, in keeping with the European Atmosphere Company. The UK should draw up new legal guidelines on how you can preserve over 11,000 miles of the nation’s shoreline clear if it drops the initiative.

34. The air we breathe

Within the UK, pollution levels have generally improved since EU limits had been launched in 2010. However most principal roads in London — and some areas in Birmingham, Leeds and Glasgow — recurrently breach authorized values for nitrogen dioxide emissions, a gasoline produced by diesel engines that causes lung illness and respiratory issues. The UK and every other offenders are slapped with heavy fines when this occurs — maybe an financial incentive for the British authorities to amend or drop the 2008 EU directive on ambient air quality.

35. The destiny of untamed birds

The EU Wild Birds Directive gives the framework for the conservation of 500 wild bird species and their habitats in Europe. Within the UK, that is executed by way of a number of completely different legal guidelines and laws that come at high compliance costs. Andrea Leadsom, the UK’s Secretary of State for the Atmosphere, mentioned only two-thirds of environmental legislation will be directly retained by the Great Repeal Bill, leaving the way forward for the remainder — together with measures to preserve birds — unsure.

36. Animal welfare

Cattle saved within the EU should be fed a healthful weight loss program, have sufficient area to maneuver round and be handled instantly in the event that they’re sick or injured, according to one directive. There are round 40 other pieces of EU legislation that also deal with animal welfare, in keeping with the RSPCA. As the federal government has made clear it will not stay within the EU’s single market, Parliament should determine which laws to maintain and which to drop.

37. Save the bees

Neonicotinoid pesticides — used on crops that entice pollinators — have been strongly connected to the declining bee population, and the EU restricted their use in 2013.

Two years later the UK granted farmers an emergency authorization to use them on oilseed rape seeds. The UK expressed doubts concerning the effectiveness of the foundations and will alter or drop them after Brexit.

38. Getting remedy

If UK residents — eligible without cost healthcare beneath the Nationwide Well being Service at residence — get sick or injured in one other EU nation, EU law says they can be treated for free and that the UK authorities should meet the associated fee. To entry this care, vacationers carry a European Well being Insurance coverage Card (EHIC). The regulation additionally permits for residents to journey overseas specifically for the purpose of getting treatment in one other EU nation. Whether or not UK residents can be eligible for an EHIC and free healthcare within the EU after Brexit is yet to be negotiated.

39. Coping with pandemics

The EU has an early warning and response system for potential public well being threats, such because the SARS epidemic in 2003. International locations can simply share info, pool sources for lab investigations and work collectively to develop new methods for future threats. After Brexit, the UK will not be a part of this technique and should develop different methods of coordinating with EU nations.

40. EU well being program

Via the EU health program, launched in 2014, EU nations work intently collectively to fight unhealthy behaviors, corresponding to smoking and drug and alcohol abuse, by sharing info and good practices. Initiatives with these objectives can obtain as much as 80% of their funding from the EU. The UK should still be eligible to be a part of this system after Brexit however membership just isn’t assured.

41. Illness prevention and management

The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control works to establish and fight threats to human well being from infectious illnesses corresponding to influenza, waterborne illnesses and HIV. It makes it simpler for organizations throughout the EU to share info and experience.

In keeping with a report by the Royal College of Physicians, packages managed by the ECDC “couldn’t be successfully fulfilled by nationwide governments independently.” After Brexit, the UK can be excluded from the ECDC and would want to barter a particular association to stay a member.

42. Medication

Below mutual recognition licensing, any medical product licensed within the UK will be distributed all through the EU.

At a recent hearing, Well being Secretary Jeremy Hunt confirmed that after Brexit the UK will not be a part of the European Medicines Company, the physique accountable for authorizing new medicines, and as an alternative hopes to barter its personal type of mutual recognition settlement with the EU.

43. Street security

Car and highway security is roofed by an extended checklist of EU legal guidelines. EU regulations set out safety standards for all types of autos and even specify the kind of crash safety methods required for autos in an effort to scale back the quantity and severity of accidents to pedestrians. After Brexit, the UK can be accountable for introducing nationwide highway and car security legal guidelines to guard its residents.

44. ‘Passporting’ for the finance business

A gripe for the finance business throughout the Brexit debate was the possible loss of “passporting” — the appropriate for UK companies to supply monetary providers wherever within the EU and the broader European Financial Space whereas being primarily based within the UK and controlled by UK authorities.

Within the Brexit negotiations, the federal government might attempt to retain this proper as a part of a brand new settlement with the EU.

45. Firearms

EU regulation units out strict regulations on who can personal a firearm and purchase ammunition. Amongst different issues, the regulation requires EU states to maintain a database of registered firearms and perform common checks on license holders. The regulation was additionally designed to make it simpler for nations to share details about firearms and their actions across the EU. After Brexit, the UK might determine to loosen or tighten these laws in its personal legal guidelines.

46. Guidelines on tobacco

The EU has strict rules on how cigarettes and different tobacco merchandise will be manufactured, marketed and bought. EU regulation is behind the massive well being warnings on cigarette packets. It’ll quickly forestall additional flavors corresponding to fruit or menthol being added to tobacco merchandise that would encourage individuals, particularly younger individuals, to start out smoking. Though the UK has strict tobacco legal guidelines of its personal, the federal government might want to make clear the place it stands on EU laws, such because the ban on menthol cigarettes, that are at the moment obtainable broadly.

47. Irish dairy

For Irish dairy farmers whose land straddles the border between Northern Eire and the Republic of Eire, Brexit might have important implications. If a “exhausting border” is imposed, new import and export costs might be launched This might imply large prices: 30% of total of Irish dairy exports go to the UK.

Farmers who’ve cows and a bottling plant on one aspect of the border, however with the milking gear on the opposite aspect, might be hit with these import/export taxes if a tough border is launched. As of now, it isn’t clear what is going to occur to the common travel area that exists between Northern Eire, which is able to stay a part of the UK, and the Republic of Eire, which is able to keep within the EU. The British authorities mentioned that its goal is “to have as seamless and frictionless a border as attainable” in a 77-page “white paper.”

48. The French border

In 2003, the French and UK governments signed the Le Touquet accord, which permits the UK to examine passports in France and successfully situates the border on French soil. The settlement has nothing to do with EU regulation however final March the then French Economic system Minister Emmanuel Macron advised Le Touquet might finish if Britain voted to go away the EU.

Macron additionally warned that migration to Britain would increase if it left the EU, together with from those that had camped out for months at a camp within the French metropolis of Calais.

Macron is now a frontrunner within the presidential election, and he hasn’t forgotten his pledge. At a marketing campaign rally in London in February, he suggested he would try to partly renegotiate the agreement. Softer language maybe, however the potential of a change to frame preparations stays.

49. Maintain broadband inexpensive

The EU has put in place a set of rules which might be meant to assist preserve broadband prices down. They oblige governments to clear any authorized obstacles which will maintain again community operators from giving telecoms operators entry to their bodily infrastructure on affordable phrases and circumstances, together with worth.

50. New passports

In 1988, darkish blue UK passports started to be phased out and replaced with the common format burgundy passport decided by the European Group, which later turned the EU. These passports are printed with the phrases “European Union” above “United Kingdom of Nice Britain and Northern Eire” on the entrance. No selections have but been taken about any future UK passport. Responding to a query from a member of Parliament concerning the attainable return of the blue passport in September 2016, Immigration Minister Robert Goodwill did not rule it out.